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In present value situations, the interest rate is often called the discount rate. Some individuals refer to present value problems as “discounted present value problems.” For example, suppose you want to know the value today of receiving $15,000 at the end of 5 years if a rate of return of 12% is earned. At 12% interest per year compounded semiannually, the company needs to invest $334,000 today to accumulate $600,000 in 5 years.

- As can be seen in the formula, solving for PV of single sum is same as solving for principal in compound interest calculation.
- Future value (FV) is the value of a current asset at a specified date in the future based on an assumed rate of growth.
- For example, suppose you want to know the value today of receiving $15,000 at the end of 5 years if a rate of return of 12% is earned.
- Future cash flows are discounted at the discount rate, and the higher the discount rate, the lower the present value of the future cash flows.
- When putting deposits to a saving account, paying home mortgage and the like, you usually make the same payments at regular intervals, e.g. weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly.

At Finance Strategists, we partner with financial experts to ensure the accuracy of our financial content. To solve the problem presented above, first, determine the future value of $1,000 invested at 12%. Another way of looking at this is to say that because of the time value of money, you would take an amount less than $12,000 if you could receive it today, instead of $12,000 in 2years.

## Compute the present value of the following single amounts to be received at the end of the…

Instead of using the above formula, the present value of a single cash flow can be calculated using the built-in Excel PV function (which is generally used for a series of cash flows). A single amount has a present value (PV) when it is discounted from its current worth. The PV calculation takes into account the time value of money, or the idea that a rupee today is worth more than a rupee tomorrow.

In this context r is also called the nominal rate, and

is often denoted as rnom. (Note that, once again, the value returned from the PV function is negative, representing an outgoing payment). Note that, in line with the general cash flow sign convention, the PV function treats negative values as outflows and positive values as inflows.

## The Time Value of Money

This article explains the computation of the present value of a single payment to be received at a single point of time in future. To understand the computation of the present value of a series of payments to be received in future, read ‘present value of an annuity’ article. If you want to calculate the present value of an annuity (a series of periodic constant cash flows that earn a fixed interest rate over a specified number bookkeeping for startups of periods), this can be done using the Excel PV function. To calculate the present value of a series of payments, we will be using the below formula. Please pay attention that the 4th argument (fv) is omitted because the future value is not included in the calculation. As stated earlier, calculating present value involves making an assumption that a rate of return could be earned on the funds over the time period.

### Is PV always lower than FV?

Is the present value always less than the future value? Yes, as long as interest rates are positive—and interest rates are always positive—the present value of a sum of money will always be less than its future value.