Environmental stewardship could refer to a variety of initiatives and actions. It can refer to strict conservation measures that protect and preserve ecosystems, to active restoration projects designed to repair damaged habitats, or to sustainable resource management and use. It could also refer to personal choices to minimize the negative impacts of human activities and live sustainably (Missouri Botanical Garden). The term “stewardship” can refer to various scales, from local to global efforts in urban and rural settings.
There is growing emphasis on the involvement of local communities as well as resource users in environmental stewardship programs, policies and practice worldwide through initiatives like community-based conservation (CBC) and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), indigenous and community-conserved areas (ICCAs) locally managed marine areas (LMMAs), sustainable livelihoods and various other forms of community-based conservation and development projects (Cattermoul et al. 2008; Bennett 2010).
The success of this campaign will depend on many elements which include:
For instance communities that rely on harvesting specific mega-fauna, it might not be feasible to put in place strict conservation measures that eliminate these species from the landscape (Gavin and co. 2015). In these instances, implementing conservation measures that do not permit any harvesting will likely to be perceived by some communities as being contrary to their identity. In certain cultural contexts, strict conservation measures or restrictions on harvesting could be viewed as an infringement of private rights, and may cause social tension. 2017).